Sep
21
2023

Demystifying Design Patterns: Template Method Design Pattern

why-kubernetes-doesnt-fit-in-all-situations
  1. Demystifying Design Patterns: Singleton Design Pattern
  2. Demystifying Design Patterns: Factory Method Design Pattern
  3. Demystifying Design Patterns: Abstract Factory Design Pattern
  4. Demystifying Design Patterns: Builder Design Pattern
  5. Demystifying Design Patterns: Prototype Design Pattern
  6. Demystifying Design Patterns: Adapter Design Pattern
  7. Demystifying Design Patterns: Bridge Design Pattern
  8. Demystifying Design Patterns: Composite Design Pattern
  9. Demystifying Design Patterns: Decorator Design Pattern
  10. Demystifying Design Patterns: Proxy Design Pattern
  11. Demystifying Design Patterns: Observer Design Pattern
  12. Demystifying Design Patterns: Strategy Design Pattern
  13. Demystifying Design Patterns: Command Design Pattern
  14. Demystifying Design Patterns: State Design Pattern
  15. Demystifying Design Patterns: Chain of Responsibility Design Pattern
  16. Demystifying Design Patterns: Visitor Design Pattern
  17. Demystifying Design Patterns: Template Method Design Pattern

Welcome to the final installment of our series on Demystifying Design Patterns! In this article, we embark on a journey through the Template Method Design Pattern—a versatile behavioral pattern that provides a blueprint for defining the structure of an algorithm. While doing so, it allows specific steps of the algorithm to be implemented by subclasses. Join us as we explore the intricacies of the Template Method Pattern, its fundamental concepts, practical applications, real-life examples, and comprehensive code implementations in Java, C#, and Python.

Introduction to the Template Method Pattern

The Template Method Pattern is a crucial behavioral design pattern that encapsulates an algorithm’s structure within an abstract class, known as the template method. This template method outlines the sequence of steps to be followed during the execution of the algorithm. However, it also provides flexibility by allowing concrete subclasses to implement specific steps based on their unique requirements. This pattern promotes code reusability and the separation of concerns.

Key Concepts: Defining Template Methods

Let’s delve into the key concepts that define the Template Method Pattern:

– Abstract Class: At the heart of the pattern lies an abstract class that contains the template method. This abstract class represents the algorithm’s skeleton and contains steps that are common to all concrete subclasses.

– Concrete Class: Concrete classes are inherited from the abstract class and are responsible for implementing the specific steps of the algorithm that are unique to them. These concrete subclasses provide the necessary customization to the template method.

– Hook Methods: Within the abstract class, optional hook methods can be defined. These hook methods serve as extension points that concrete subclasses can override to inject additional behavior at specific points in the algorithm.

Inversion of Control and the Hollywood Principle

The Template Method Pattern adheres to the principles of “Inversion of Control” and the “Hollywood Principle.” In essence, control of the algorithm’s flow is inverted. Instead of concrete subclasses controlling the algorithm, it is the abstract class (the template) that orchestrates the overall flow. Subclasses are invited to participate by implementing specific steps, hence the reference to the “Hollywood Principle”—”Don’t call us; we’ll call you.”

Template Method vs. Strategy Pattern

It’s essential to distinguish between the Template Method and Strategy Patterns. While both patterns allow for algorithm customization, they serve different purposes. The Template Method focuses on defining the structure of an algorithm with specific steps, whereas the Strategy Pattern encapsulates various algorithms as objects, allowing clients to select and switch between them dynamically. Choosing the appropriate pattern depends on the design requirements.

Template Method in Frameworks and Libraries

The Template Method Pattern finds widespread use in frameworks and libraries, providing a foundation for extensibility. Frameworks often define abstract classes with template methods, allowing developers to customize behavior by creating concrete subclasses. This pattern is particularly valuable in the development of GUI frameworks, workflow engines, and more.

Real-Life Examples

Example 1: Caffeine Beverage

Imagine a scenario involving caffeinated beverages. A `CaffeineBeverage` abstract class could define a template method for preparing drinks. Subclasses like `Coffee` and `Tea` provide concrete implementations for brewing methods, allowing for variations in preparation while maintaining a common template.

Example 2: Game Development

In game development, the Template Method Pattern can be employed to structure the game loop. The abstract class outlines the overall flow, including initialization, updates, and rendering, while concrete subclasses implement specific game logic. This pattern enhances code organization and maintainability in complex games.

Example 3: Document Generation

Consider a document generation framework responsible for generating various document types. The framework’s abstract class defines a template method for document creation. Subclasses representing document types customize content, formatting, and layout within the template method, streamlining the document generation process.

Code Examples

Let’s solidify our understanding of the Template Method Pattern with comprehensive code examples in Java, C#, and Python. These code implementations will illustrate how to create template methods and allow subclasses to customize algorithm steps.

example-template-method-design-pattern

Java Example:
// (Java code example illustrating the Template Method Pattern)
abstract class AbstractAlgorithm {
    public void execute() {
        step1();
        step2();
        step3();
    }

    protected abstract void step1();
    protected abstract void step2();
    protected abstract void step3();
}

class ConcreteAlgorithm extends AbstractAlgorithm {
    protected void step1() {
        System.out.println("Executing Step 1");
    }

    protected void step2() {
        System.out.println("Executing Step 2");
    }

    protected void step3() {
        System.out.println("Executing Step 3");
    }
}

public class TemplateMethodDemo {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        AbstractAlgorithm algorithm = new ConcreteAlgorithm();
        algorithm.execute();
    }
}
C# Example:
// (C# code example illustrating the Template Method Pattern)
using System;

abstract class AbstractAlgorithm {
    public void Execute() {
        Step1();
        Step2();
        Step3();
    }

    protected abstract void Step1();
    protected abstract void Step2();
    protected abstract void Step3();
}

class ConcreteAlgorithm : AbstractAlgorithm {
    protected override void Step1() {
        Console.WriteLine("Executing Step 1");
    }

    protected override void Step2() {
        Console.WriteLine("Executing Step 2");
    }

    protected override void Step3() {
        Console.WriteLine("Executing Step 3");
    }
}

class TemplateMethodDemo {
    static void Main(string[] args) {
        AbstractAlgorithm algorithm = new ConcreteAlgorithm();
        algorithm.Execute();
    }
}
Python Example:
# (Python code example illustrating the Template Method Pattern)
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod

class AbstractAlgorithm(ABC):
    def execute(self):
        self.step1()
        self.step2()
        self.step3()

    @abstractmethod
    def step1(self):
        pass

    @abstractmethod
    def step2(self):
        pass

    @abstractmethod
    def step3(self):
        pass

class ConcreteAlgorithm(AbstractAlgorithm):
    def step1(self):
        print("Executing Step 1")

    def step2(self):
        print("Executing Step 2")

    def step3(self):
        print("Executing Step 3")

if __name__ == "__main__":
    algorithm = ConcreteAlgorithm()
    algorithm.execute()

Conclusion

The Template Method Design Pattern empowers you to structure algorithms systematically while enabling customization through concrete subclasses. It promotes code reusability, separation of concerns, and adheres to the principles of Inversion of Control and the Hollywood Principle. In this final article of our series, we explored the essential concepts of the pattern, its distinctions from the Strategy Pattern, and its applications in real-world scenarios and frameworks.

With the Template Method Pattern in your design pattern toolkit, you have a powerful tool for creating flexible and maintainable software solutions. We hope you’ve enjoyed this journey through the world of design patterns and that these articles have provided you with valuable insights into their practical applications. Thank you for joining us on this adventure, and remember that design patterns are a key to crafting elegant and efficient software solutions.