Terraform vs AWS CloudFormation vs GCP Cloud Build



In the fast-paced world of cloud computing, the ability to provision and manage infrastructure efficiently is crucial for modern businesses. Infrastructure as Code (IaC) tools have emerged as essential components in this process, allowing developers to define and deploy infrastructure through code rather than manual configurations. Three major players in the IaC landscape are Terraform, AWS CloudFormation, and GCP Cloud Build. In this article, we’ll explore the similarities and differences between these tools to help you make an informed choice for your infrastructure needs.

Introduction to Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Tools

Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is a practice that enables developers and operations teams to manage and provision infrastructure using code. This approach offers several benefits, including version control, repeatability, consistency, and the ability to automate the provisioning process. As cloud environments become more complex, IaC tools have become essential for organizations aiming to streamline their infrastructure management.

Terraform: Flexibility and Multi-Cloud Support

Terraform, developed by HashiCorp, is one of the most popular IaC tools available. It stands out for its declarative syntax and support for multiple cloud providers, including AWS, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Microsoft Azure, and more. This makes it an excellent choice for organizations using a multi-cloud strategy.

Similarities with Other Tools

Declarative Syntax

Like other IaC tools, Terraform allows you to define infrastructure using a declarative syntax, specifying the desired state of the resources.

Infrastructure Versioning

All three tools provide version control for infrastructure code, allowing you to track changes over time.

Differences from Other Tools

Multi-Cloud Support

Terraform’s standout feature is its ability to manage resources across various cloud providers, offering more flexibility in a multi-cloud environment.

Resource Providers

Terraform uses providers to interact with different cloud services, allowing for a wide range of supported services and resources.

HCL Language

Terraform uses HashiCorp Configuration Language (HCL) for defining infrastructure. HCL is specifically designed to be human-readable and easy to understand.

State Management

Terraform maintains a state file that tracks the current state of the infrastructure. This allows Terraform to understand the difference between the desired state and the actual state and apply only the necessary changes.

Resource Updates

Terraform supports in-place updates to resources, which means you can modify existing resources without recreating them. This can help prevent downtime during updates.


Terraform promotes modularization, allowing you to break down your infrastructure code into reusable modules for better organization and maintainability.

AWS CloudFormation: Native Integration with AWS

AWS CloudFormation is Amazon’s native IaC tool designed specifically for provisioning resources within the AWS ecosystem.

Similarities with Other Tools

Infrastructure as Code

All three tools, including CloudFormation, treat infrastructure as code, which enhances consistency and repeatability.

Resource Dependencies

CloudFormation, like the others, manages resource dependencies and ensures proper provisioning order.

Differences from Other Tools


CloudFormation is deeply integrated into the AWS ecosystem, which can be a significant advantage if your infrastructure is primarily AWS-based.

JSON and YAML Templates

While Terraform and GCP Cloud Build often use their respective domain-specific languages, CloudFormation uses JSON or YAML templates for defining infrastructure.


CloudFormation organizes resources into stacks. A stack is a collection of AWS resources that can be created, updated, or deleted together. This enables you to manage complex applications as a single unit.

Change Sets

Before applying changes to a stack, CloudFormation generates a change set that provides a preview of the changes. This helps prevent accidental modifications and allows for better change management.

Resource Provisioning

CloudFormation provisions resources in the order specified in the template. This can sometimes lead to challenges when dealing with interdependent resources.

Resource Type Coverage

While CloudFormation covers a vast range of AWS services, it may lag behind in supporting newer services and features compared to Terraform.

GCP Cloud Build: Automation and Continuous Integration

GCP Cloud Build is Google Cloud Platform’s solution for automating builds and deployments. While not a traditional IaC tool like Terraform or CloudFormation, it can be used to manage infrastructure through the use of custom build steps.

Similarities with Other Tools


All three tools facilitate automation, ensuring that infrastructure provisioning is consistent and repeatable.


Just like Cloud Build integrates with GCP services, Terraform and CloudFormation integrate with their respective cloud platforms.

Differences from Other Tools

Build-Centric Approach

Cloud Build’s primary focus is on automating build and deployment workflows. While it can manage infrastructure, it is not as specialized for this purpose as Terraform and CloudFormation.

Scripting Flexibility

Cloud Build allows you to define custom build steps using scripts, providing greater flexibility but potentially requiring more manual effort for infrastructure provisioning.

Build Pipelines

Cloud Build’s primary focus is on building and deploying code. It provides a managed CI/CD platform for automating build and deployment pipelines.


While Cloud Build can be used for infrastructure management, it requires more custom scripting to achieve this. You need to define your own steps and logic for provisioning resources.

GCP Integration

Cloud Build seamlessly integrates with GCP services and can automate deployment to GCP environments. It may require additional integration work to manage resources across multiple cloud providers.

Service Integration

Cloud Build supports triggering builds based on events from version control systems like Git. It can also be extended with custom builders for specific use cases.

General Differences

Community and Documentation

Terraform has a strong and active community, leading to extensive documentation, modules, and community-contributed providers. AWS CloudFormation benefits from tight integration with AWS services, while GCP Cloud Build’s integration is focused on GCP offerings.

Adoption and Maturity

As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, Terraform had gained significant adoption and maturity due to its multi-cloud support and strong community. CloudFormation and Cloud Build are deeply integrated within their respective cloud ecosystems but may have specific limitations compared to Terraform in multi-cloud scenarios.


When it comes to choosing the right IaC tool for your infrastructure needs, there is no one-size-fits-all answer. Terraform, AWS CloudFormation, and GCP Cloud Build all have their unique strengths and capabilities. Terraform’s flexibility in multi-cloud environments makes it a strong contender for organizations with diverse cloud strategies. AWS CloudFormation excels in an AWS-centric environment, leveraging native integration with AWS services. GCP Cloud Build, while not solely an IaC tool, offers automation and continuous integration capabilities that can be extended to managing infrastructure.

Ultimately, the choice depends on your organization’s cloud strategy, the cloud provider you primarily use, and the level of automation and control you require. Careful evaluation of your requirements and a deep understanding of each tool’s features will lead to the optimal choice that aligns with your infrastructure goals. Whichever tool you choose, embracing Infrastructure as Code will undoubtedly contribute to more efficient, scalable, and manageable cloud deployments.